Evaluation of public order policing during Euro 2004

Summary of a presentation given to EU task force chiefs of police, october 11, 2004 the Hague, to be published in Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid en Veiligheidszorg

At the request of the Portuguese national police PSP and funded by the Economic Social Research Council (ESRC) an independent study was carried out into fan behaviour and public order policing during the 2004 European footballchampionships held in Portugal (Euro 2004). The study was conducted in cooperation between the University of Liverpool and the Police Academy of the Netherlands. The research addressed three specific issues. Firstly, understanding the psychological processes and intergroup dynamics underlying both the presence and absence of 'disorder' in the context of international football. Secondly, evaluating the effectiveness of police strategies and tactics used to prevent crowd disorder. Thirdly, developing the relationship between science and practice in the realm of public order policing by providing an empirically based approach to the safety and security planning of future international football tournaments.